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These are common issues that you may encounter during system installation or use.

Problematic environments

There is a known issue that manifests during activation and can bring the Java virtual machine down with a segmentation fault. The issue occurs with a combination of Mac OS X, Java and the Tomcat application server versions.

(tick) The issue is fixed in Java SE Development Kit 8 Update 11 (JDK 8u11). Please update your JDK.

 See Problematic environments.

Reloading a page in the editor causes a 404 error

When you open a page for editing and reload it in the browser, an extra semicolon is added to the URL fragment and the server returns a 404 error. Every subsequent reload adds another semicolon. This issue occurs with older versions of the Tomcat application server. To resolve this issue, upgrade to Tomcat 7.0.47+. See  MGNLUI-2426 - Getting issue details... STATUS

Tomcat 7.0.66+ Trailing slash issue

When accessing the webapp without the trailing slash after the context http://localhost:8080/magnoliaAuthor after login the user is presented with a 404 page rather than admincentral.  This behavior is configurable via the mapperContextRootRedirectEnabled and mapperDirectoryRedirectEnabled attributes of the Context which may be used to restore the previous behavior. See Apache Tomcat 7 Changelog.

JBoss AS 5 class loading issue with Xerces

If you get an exception about SAX parser when deploying Magnolia on JBoss AS 5 you are hitting an issue with Xerces class loading:

org.jboss.xb.binding.JBossXBException: Failed to create a new SAX parser or java.lang.ClassCastException: org.apache.xerces.parsers.XIncludeAwareParserConfiguration

To resolve, remove the Xerces JAR from Magnolia webapps:

  • If you deploy using WAR files, remove the JAR from the archive, for example with the following Unix command: zip -d path-to-magnolia.war WEB-INF/lib/xercesImpl-2.8.1.jar
  • If you deploy using an exploded directory, remove the WEB-INF/lib/xercesImpl-2.8.1.jar file.

See  MAGNOLIA-2577 - Getting issue details... STATUS for details.

JBoss AS 7 class loading issue with Weld

Using JBoss AS 7 together with Weld dependency injection leads to a class loading issue. The symptom is an error message such as: 

Service Module Loader: java.lang.LinkageError: Failed to link org/jbpm/services/task/wih/ExternalTaskEventListener (Module "deployment.magnolia525Author.war:main" from Service Module Loader)
	at org.jboss.modules.ModuleClassLoader.defineClass(
	at [jboss-as-weld-7.1.3.Final.jar:7.1.3.Final]

To resolve this issue, remove the dependency on Weld. Create a JBoss deployment structure XML file with the following content:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<jboss-deployment-structure xmlns="urn:jboss:deployment-structure:1.2">
            <subsystem name="weld" />

Place the file in /magnoliaAuthor.war/WEB-INF/jboss-deployment-structure.xml.

JBoss AS 7 and log4j

JBoss 7 Application Server adds its own log4j logging configuration. If you want to use your own log4j logging configuration in your deployment, exclude the JBoss configuration first.

Create a new file jboss-deployment-structure.xml under the WEB-INF folder with this content:

  <!-- Exclusions allow you to prevent the server from automatically adding some dependencies -->
      <module name="org.apache.log4j" />
      <module name="org.slf4j" />

See How do I use or log4j.xml instead of using the logging subsystem configuration?

JBoss AS 7 issue loading Vaadin applications

JBoss AS 7 requires that you deploy a gwt-user.jar when deploying a Vaadin application such as Magnolia. Magnolia does not need the JAR at runtime but if you don't supply it JBoss AS 7 will throw an error:

javax.servlet.ServletException: com.vaadin.server.ServiceException: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: info/magnolia/ui/vaadin/gwt/client/magnoliashell/shellmessage/ShellMessageWidget : com/google/gwt/user/client/ui/HTML

To resolve this issue, download  gwt-user.jar  and copy it into the Web application's classpath. Classpath is a parameter that tells the Java Virtual Machine or the Java compiler where to look for user-defined classes and packages. The classpath of a Magnolia webapp includes any JAR files in /WEB-INF/lib and any classes and resources in /WEB-INF/classes.

Oracle WebLogic 9 conflict with JDOM library

Oracle WebLogic 9 also ships with an old version of JDom which later leads to issues in parsing of XML documents. Issues will be noted as exceptions such as:

java.lang.NoSuchMethodError: org.jdom.Element.getParent()Lorg/jdom/Element;
   at org.jaxen.jdom.DocumentNavigator.getParentAxisIterator(
   at org.jaxen.DefaultNavigator.getParentNode(
   at org.jaxen.expr.NodeComparator.getDepth(
   at java.util.Arrays.mergeSort(

To resolve, provide newer JDOM/Jaxen libraries by adding jdom-1.0.jarjaxen-1.0-FCS-full.jarxom-1.1.jar and saxpath-1.0-FCS.jar to PRE_CLASSPATH variable in the script.

Oracle WebLogic 10 conflict with commons-lang library

When deploying on Oracle WebLogic 10, there is a version conflict while using commons-lang. While Oracle WebLogic-10 is distributed with commons-lang-2.3.jar, JackRabbit and Magnolia need at least commons-lang-2.4.jar. To resolve this issue, modify of Oracle WebLogic and add commons-lang-2.4.jar to the PRE_CLASSPATH. Since version 2.4 commons-lang doesn't remove any methods, but only adds new API and fixes known bugs, there is no adverse effect from this change to the Oracle WebLogic installation.

Oracle WebLogic 12c conflict with Bouncy Castle library

Magnolia uses the Bouncy Castle cryptography package to decode the license key and to secure the activation process. Oracle WebLogic 12c is distributed with bcprov-jdk16-1.45.jar but Magnolia is distributed with bcprov-jdk16-1.46.jar. This leads to a library version conflict.

Symptom: after inserting valid license key into the Magnolia license form, the error message "License is empty" is displayed.

To resolve, do one of the following:

  • Edit in Oracle WebLogic and add bcprov-jdk16-1.46.jar to PRE_CLASSPATH or
  • Remove bcprov-jdk16-1.45.jar from Oracle WebLogic 12c common libraries.

Oracle WebLogic and IBM WebSphere deployment issue with jBPM 6

jBPM 6 cannot be deployed on Oracle WebLogic or IBM WebSphere. jBPM is included in the Magnolia Workflow module. All deployment methods are affected: Administration Console, Oracle WebLogic.Deployer, wldeploy Ant task and autodeploy directory.


weblogic.application.ModuleException: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException:


  1. Deploy an application which doesn't contain Magnolia Workflow with jBPM6, for example Magnolia 5.2.2 or Magnolia 5.3 without the Workflow module.
  2. In the deployment target location, replace the deployed webapp with a new webapp that contains workflow with jBPM6

Oracle WebLogic 12c conflict with Google Guava library

Magnolia cannot render images stored in dam workspace. Google Guava library is used by the DAM API 2.0 which is used for working with images.


java.lang.RuntimeException: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Could not initialize class


 Modify the weblogic.xml file in your application's WEB-INF folder with the prefer-application-packages  element:


Jetty 9± stream closed

Magnolia's resource loader makes heavy use of accessing classpath resources (last modification date and contents). Jetty uses caching of such resources by default, which may result in a occurring randomly. See MAGNOLIA-6860 - Getting issue details... STATUS .

Mac OS X 10.5 - Leopard

If you use Mac OS X 10.5 or 10.6, you should update to at least 10.5.8 or 10.6.2. Earlier versions cause issues where, when two or more instances are started in the same container, some or all connections are dropped.

The symptoms are that Tomcat is unreachable ("kCFErrorDomainCFNetwork:302") but no log message clearly identifies the issue. Sometimes pages can be loaded but resources cannot, leading to missing images or stylesheets. Another symptom is that you have to kill the Tomcat process to stop it (-HUP works) because the shutdown script cannot reach the running process either. See MAGNOLIA-1959 for more details and comment on your own experience.

Too many open files

The embedded Derby database that Magnolia uses for demonstration opens several file handles and may run over the maximum limit set by the system. This issue can occur on some Linux and OS X systems such as Macbook Air.

The solution is to increase the system-wide limit on the number of open files. The exact procedure varies from one OS to the next, see Too many open files.

 Ubuntu Linux
  1. Find the current maximum number of open files per user in a single session: 
    ulimit -n
    By default the number is 1024 which is too small.
  2. Edit the limits.conf file: 
    sudo gedit /etc/security/limits.conf
  3. Add the following lines to the file: 
    * soft nofile 10000
    * hard nofile 50000
    This sets for all users a soft limit of 10000 open files and a hard limit of 50000. These are just example numbers. Set them according to your system needs. Note that the wildcard option applies only to regular users, not to superuser. If you run Magnolia as superuser replace the asterisk with root.
  4. Save the file.
  5. Edit the configuration file for session-related modules: 
    sudo gedit /etc/pam.d/common-session
  6. Add the following line to the file: 
    session required
  7. Save the file.
  8. Restart Ubuntu.
  9. Verify the new maximum number of open files: 
    ulimit -n
    The command should now return 10000.
 Mac OSX

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion:

  1. Find the current maximum number of open files per user in a single session: 
    ulimit -n
    By default the number is 256 which is too small.
  2. Add ulimit -n 65536 to your ~/.profile file. This increases the limit for the shell.
  3. Create a file /etc/sysctl.conf if it doesn't exist.
  4. Add the following lines in /etc/sysctl.conf. This increases the limit for the kernel.
  5. Open a terminal and type:

    sudo sysctl -w kern.maxfiles=65536
    sudo sysctl -w kern.maxfilesperproc=65536
    sudo ulimit -n 65536

    -- OR --
    Restart OSX to read the settings from the files you edited.

  6. Type ulimit -n. The response should be 65536. (If not, restart OSX)
  7. Install Magnolia

OS X 10.9 (Mavericks), 10.10 (Yosemite) and 10.11 (El Capitan), see Shell Session Limit

Session de-serialization

When installing or updating to a new version, you may see this error message:

2009-11-24 13:02:14,970 ERROR org.apache.catalina.session.ManagerBase : 
IOException while loading persisted sessions

This can be due to changes in signatures of classes that are stored in user sessions, such as permissions, user, etc. The error happens when Tomcat attempts to de-serialize serialized sessions as the container starts. The de-serialization causes the loss of persisted sessions. Users will have to log in again. Otherwise it is a harmless error and can be ignored.


If you see the following error message in your logs:

Provider org.apache.xalan.processor.TransformerFactoryImpl not found

Add the Xalan jar to the WEB-INF/lib folder of your Magnolia instances, delete the repositories and start again. Please see MAGNOLIA-1958 for more details and comment on your own experience.

Port 8080 is already in use

Port 8080 is the default port for Tomcat. You can see it at the end of the default address  http://localhost:8080 . If another application on the computer is already using the same port you may need to change it.

  1. Open <CATALINA_HOME>/conf/server.xml in a text editor. This file is under your Magnolia installation directory.
  2. Find the following section and set the value of port to something other than 8080, for example 8090:

    <!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
    <Connector port="8090" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />

Change the defaultBaseUrl property which is used to generate links in emails or other external systems. To do this, you need to now access Magnolia at the new port 8090.

  1. Log into the author instance at  http://localhost:8090/magnoliaAuthor/.magnolia .
  2. Go to Configuration.
  3. Set the value of /server/defaultBaseUrl property to http://localhost:8090/magnolia/
  4. Log into the public instance at  http://localhost:8090/magnoliaPublic/.magnolia .
  5. Go to Configuration.
  6. Set the value of /server/defaultBaseUrl property to http://localhost:8090/magnolia/

Now the Welcome page at  http://localhost:8090  has the correct URLs too.

The port also needs to be changed in publishing configuration, otherwise activating changes from the author to public instance fails.

  1. On the author instance, go to Configuration > Subscribers.
  2. Under the magnoliaPublic8080 subscriber, set the URL property to  http://localhost:8090/magnoliaPublic
  3. Rename the subscriber to magnoliaPublic8090.
  4. Activate the modified subscriber including its subnodes.

If you want to run two different Tomcats simultaneously you need to change other ports too. This is useful if you want to run different versions of Magnolia at the same time. In <CATALINA_HOME>/conf/server.xml, change the port numbers for the shutdown and AJP sections and any custom sections you have enabled.

Windows Firewall is blocking Java

Allow an exception in Windows Firewall for Java.

  1. Go to Control Panel > Windows Firewall.
  2. Go to the Exceptions tab.
  3. Click Add Program and browse to the java.exe file in the Java installation directory, for example C:\Sun\SDK\jdk\bin\java.exe.
  4. Click OK.

If you get a security alert during startup, check the Private networks checkbox and click Allow access.

CATALINA_HOME environment variable is not defined

CATALINA_HOME environment variable identifies the Tomcat home directory, for example C:\Program Files\magnolia\apache-tomcat. Usually Magnolia finds this directory automatically. When you type magnolia_control.bat start in the bin directory to start the system, a second script named startup.bat tries to find Tomcat home. It assumes that Tomcat home is one level above the bin directory where you issued the command, and sets the value of CATALINA_HOME to that directory.

C:\Program Files
        apache-tomcat   <-- Tomcat home directory
            bin         <-- magnolia_control.bat is here

However, if you added the bin directory to your PATH environment variable you can execute magnolia_control.bat from anywhere. This means startup.bat does not find Tomcat home directory by simply moving up one level from where you are and displays the following error:

To correct this define CATALINA_HOME in environment variables. Follow the instructions in Set JAVA_HOME environment variable.

Java out of memory

If the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) does not have enough memory you may see a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError  in the startup log and Magnolia fails to start.

Exception in thread "Timer-1" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space
at org.apache.jackrabbit.core.query.lucene.IndexingQueue.getFinishedDocuments

Increase Java heap size to allocate more memory to JVM:

  1. Stop the server. 
    ./ stop
  2. Open file /apache-tomcat/bin/ (/apache-tomcat/bin/setenv.bat on Windows) in a text editor.
  3. Edit the Xmx parameter to set a new maximum heap size. Default size for Magnolia is 512M, try a higher amount such as 1024M.
  4. Save the file and start the server. 
    ./ start && tail -f ../logs/catalina.out

JAR file does not start

When installing the Enterprise Edition on Windows, you can start the installer by double-clicking the JAR file. If this does not work there is a chance that some application on your system has registered the .jar extension.

You can try to fix it yourself by restoring the association of the .jar extension with the javaw.exe executable. .Right-click the JAR file and select Open With. Typically the javaw.exe file is in C:\Program Files (x86)\java\jre6\bin). Alternatively, start the installer from a command prompt with the following command: java -jar magnolia-enterprise-installer-x.y.z.jar. Make sure the file extension is .jar. Internet Explorer has a tendency to append or change it to .zip.

Activation errors

For issues related to activation keys and the handshaking process, see the Activation errors page.