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Magnolia LDAP Connector is a JAAS login module that connects to any LDAP v3 directory service. The LDAP Connector is used in intranet environments where an enterprise user management infrastructure already exists. With JAAS you can meet single sign-on requirements or connect to legacy LDAP servers.

Installing

Maven is the easiest way to install the module. Add the following dependency to your bundle:

<dependency>
  <groupId>info.magnolia</groupId>
  <artifactId>magnolia-ldap</artifactId>
  <version>1.9.1</version>
</dependency>

Pre-built jars are also available for download. See Installing a module for help.

Module configuration

Node nameValue

 ldap

 

 config

 

  allowPartialResults

false

  envPropertiesPredicate

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ConnectionFactory.EnvPropertiesDefaultPredicate

  ignoreGroupsWithIllegalName

false

  pageSize

500

Properties:

allowPartialResults

optional, default is false

Indicates what methods are used to deal with the PartialResultException exception thrown by the LDAP service provider (c.f. java.naming.referral property).

  • true uses the hasMoreElements() and nextElement() methods.
  • false uses the hasMore() and next() methods.
envPropertiesPredicate

optional 

Allows to define a custom predicate for the ConnectionFactory#getEnv(java.util.Properties) method.

If the value is not defined explicitly here then the predicate accepts anything within the following namespaces:

  • java.naming.*  (except credentials and principal)

  • com.sun.jndi.ldap.*

ignoreGroupsWithIllegalName

optional, default is false

When resolving a user from an external (LDAP/AD) realm, true will ignore user groups whose names contain a JCR 2.0 invalid character (cf. Managing pages).

pageSize

optional, default is 500

Specifies the number of objects to be returned in a single search result.

LDAP configuration

An LDAP configuration file tells Magnolia where to find your LDAP directory server. The file also says whether Magnolia should resolve users, groups or both from the directory.

The LDAP Connector module bundle provides two sample files in the configuration-samples folder:

  • ldap.properties defines an LDAP server.
  • ad.properties defines an Active Directory server.

Properties (LDAP and/or Active Directory)

Properties used in the ldap.properties and/or ad.properties file(s):

File(s)PropertyDescription
both

java.naming.provider.url

required

URL of the LDAP/AD service provider.

Example: ldap://ldap.example.com/

both

java.naming.security.principal

required, default is the LDAP provider's default

User or program doing the authentication. Use an appropriate DN/CN for your server.  

Example: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,dc=example,dc=com

This property is interchangeable with adminUserDN but takes precedence if both are specified in the file.

both

java.naming.security.credentials

required

Password or encrypted data such as a digital certificate that the implementation uses to authenticate the client.

This property is interchangeable with adminUserPassword but takes precedence if both are specified in the file.

bothadminUserDN

required

User or program doing the authentication. Use an appropriate DN/CN for your server.  

Example: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,dc=example,dc=com

This property is interchangeable with java.naming.security.principal but ignored if both are specified in the file.

bothadminUserPassword

required

Password or encrypted data such as a digital certificate that the implementation uses to authenticate the client.

This property is interchangeable with java.naming.security.credentials but ignored if both are specified in the file.

both

java.naming.security.authentication

optional, default is none

Authentication mechanism (password encryption) used. Possible values are none, simple or a specific authentication mechanism such as DIGEST-MD5.

both

java.naming.referral

optional, default is ignore

Indicates to the service provider how to handle referrals. Valid values are ignore, follow and throw.

If the LDAP/AD service provider receives a referral despite you having set the property to ignore it will throw a PartialResultException to indicate that more results might be coming if the referral was followed. In this case the server does not support the Manage Referral control and supports referral updates in some other way. See: Oracle: Referrals in the JNDI. Windows Active Directory is an example of a directory service which does not support Manage Referral Control.

To deal with the PartialResultException, create a property Configuration > /modules/ldap/config/allowPartialResults and set it to true.

both

java.naming.factory.initial

optional (but recommended)

The class name of the of the initial context. The class must implement the javax.naming.directory.DirContext interface or LDAP requests from Magnolia will fail.

The default value for java.naming.factory.initial will depend on your container or Java configuration. For example, the default configuration for Apache Tomcat specifies the class org.apache.naming.SelectorContext which does not implement the java.naming.directory.DirContext interface. When running in Tomcat, the class com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory can be used.

bothinitialSearchAttributes

required

Defines the initial connect point to the directory service.

Example: initialSearchAttributes=CN=Users,dc=example,dc=com

both

Organization
OrganizationUnit
CommonName
Surname
GivenName
uid
dn
mail
Password
Language

required

Name mapping(s) taking the form <property>=<value> , for example

CommonName=cn
mail=mail
Password=pass
Language=language

(warning) The properties shown on the left are just a few examples. If necessary, additional (custom) properties may be created to allow smooth mapping of names.

See also: Accessing properties from LDAP

both

groupResolverClass

required (if roleResolverClass is not used)

The value is a class responsible for resolving groups assigned to a user. The class must implement the info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.NameResolver interface.

Implementations:

  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.OpenLDAPGroupResolver resolves groups from any LDAP directory.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.ADGroupResolver resolves groups from Active Directory.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.MagnoliaGroupResolver resolves groups from Magnolia.
both

roleResolverClass

required (if groupResolverClass is not used)

A class responsible for resolving roles assigned to a user. The class must implement the info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.NameResolver interface. Roles cannot be maintained in LDAP, they must be in Magnolia.

Implementations:

  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.MagnoliaRoleResolver resolves roles from Magnolia.
ad.ssoSlave

optional, default is false

Set ssoSlave=true if this Magnolia instance is a slave server in a single sign-on (SSO) environment.

ad. userMembershipAttribute

required (only if ADGroupResolver is used)

The name of the user attrribute which specifies the groups the user is a member of.

Example: userMembershipAttribute=memberOf

ldap.groupSearchFilter

required (if OpenLDAPGroupResolver is used)   

A filter used to find groups the user is a member of.

Example: groupSearchFilter=(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member=MEMBERSHIP_VALUE))

ldap. groupMembershipAttributeValue

required (if OpenLDAPGroupResolver is used)  

The value of the dn attribute to be passed to MEMBERSHIP_VALUE in groupSearchFilter.

Example: groupMembershipAttributeValue=dn

both groupIdAttribute

required (only if either OpenLDAPGroupResolver or ADGroupResolver is used)  

The name of the group ID attribute in LDAP/AD.

Example: groupIdAttribute=cn

both groupSearchContext

optional (only if either OpenLDAPGroupResolver or ADGroupResolver is used)  

A subtree for groups in the LDAP/AD structure if groups are managed in different subtree than the users. If missing then the initialSearchAttributes is used.

Example: groupSearchContext=cn=groups,dc=example,dc=com

both groupsSearchFilter

optional (only if either OpenLDAPGroupResolver or ADGroupResolver is used), default values are

  • for the LDAP resolver: (&(objectClass=groupOfNames)GROUP_IDS_SUBSTITUTION)
  • for the AD resolver: (&(objectClass=group)GROUP_IDS_SUBSTITUTION)

A filter for searching groups in LDAP/AD.

both groupMembershipAttribute

required (only if either OpenLDAPGroupResolver or ADGroupResolver is used)    

The name of the group attrribute which specifies the members belonging to the group.

Example: groupMembershipAttribute=member

magnolia.properties

Put the  ldap.properties  or  ad.properties  file inside your Magnolia webapp, for example in /<CATALINA_HOME>/webapps/<contextPath>/WEB-INF/config. Reference the file location from a  magnolia.properties  file using the jndi.ldap.config property. Set the value to an absolute or relative path inside the webapp. You can also use the ${magnolia.home} variable.

magnolia.properties
jndi.ldap.config=WEB-INF/config/ldap.properties

Configuring multiple directory servers

To configure multiple LDAP and AD directories, use the pattern jndi.ldap.config.<realmName> where realmName corresponds to a realm name in the user manager.

Example: Configuring multiple directory servers in magnolia.properties.

magnolia.properties
jndi.ldap.config.ad=WEB-INF/config/ad.properties
jndi.ldap.config.ldap=WEB-INF/config/ldap.properties
jndi.ldap.config=WEB-INF/config/default-ldap.properties

Explanation:

  • A user manager with realm name ad will use an Active Directory property file defined under the jndi.ldap.config.ad key.
  • A user manager with realm name ldap will use an LDAP property file defined under the jndi.ldap.config.ldap key.
  • A user manager with realm name external will use the default LDAP property file defined under the jndi.ldap.config key since no specific property file is configured for this realm.

Corresponding user manager configuration:

Node nameValue

 server

 

 security

 

 userManagers

 

 system

 

 ad

 

 class

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ADUserManager

 realmName

 ad

 ldap

 

 class

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPUserManager

 realmName

 ldap

 external

 

 class

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPUserManager

 realmName

 external

JAAS login configuration

Magnolia uses the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) to authenticate users. When you store users in a directory outside of Magnolia configure the directory as a LoginModule. You can list several LoginModules. Authentication proceeds down the module list in the order you specify with flags.

jaas.config for Tomcat

For the Tomcat application server, create a jaas.config file and list the LoginModules in the following format:

jaas.config syntax
magnolia { 
   <LoginModule> <flag> <options>;
   <LoginModule> <flag> <options>;
   <LoginModule> <flag> <options>;
   };

Properties:

LoginModule

required

A class that implements the desired authentication technology.

Implementations:

  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthenticationModule authenticates against Magnolia.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPAuthenticationModule  authenticates against any LDAP directory.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ADAuthenticationModule authenticates against Active Directory.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthorizationModule retrieves the user's ACLs.

Set also the  groupResolverClass  and roleResolverClass properties in  ldap.properties .

flag

required

The flag indicates whether success of the preceding LoginModule is required, requisite, sufficient, or optional. If you only have one LoginModule then the flag must be required. See: flag values.

options

optional

Options is a space-separated list of LoginModule-specific values which are passed directly to the LoginModule. The options are defined by the LoginModule itself, and control its behavior.

Options for JCRAuthenticationModule module:

  • realm: Restrict the login to a certain realm. Valid values: system, external, admin, public.
  • use_realm_callback: Allow the client to define the realm he logs into. Values: true, false. Default is false.
  • skip_on_previous_success: A Magnolia-specific option to define if this module needs to be skipped based on previous (in JAAS module chain) module status. Values: true , false . If true this module is skipped if the previous module did a successful login.

Example 1:  Authenticate against Magnolia on Tomcat

jaas.config
magnolia {
   info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthenticationModule requisite;
   info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthorizationModule required;
   };

Example 2: Authenticate against LDAP on Tomcat

jaas.config
magnolia {
   info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthenticationModule optional;
   info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPAuthenticationModule requisite skip_on_previous_success=true;
   info.magnolia.jaas.sp.jcr.JCRAuthorizationModule required;
   };

Notes about example 2:

  1. JCRAuthenticationModule authenticates users who are stored only in Magnolia such as superuser and anonymous. optional means the module is not required to succeed. Authentication proceeds to the next module whether the user is found or not.
  2. LDAPAuthenticationModule authenticates users who are stored in LDAP. requisite means that if the login module succeeds, authentication continues down the list. If the module fails, authentication does not proceed down the list. This module is skipped if the previous module was successful. This module could also be info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ADAuthenticationModule .
  3. JCRAuthorizationModule is required to succeed.

User manager

You also need to configure an external UserManager. (warning) Make sure it is placed before the admin but after the system user managers. Any other order may result in 401 errors (authentication failed) during publishing and unpublishing of content.

Node nameValue

 server

 

 security

 

 userManagers

 

 system

 

 external

 

 class

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPUserManager

 realmName

 external

 admin

 

 public

 

Properties:

allowCrossRealmDuplicateNames

optional , default is false

Allows duplicate usernames in different realms. Only applicable to admin realm.

class

required

A class that implements the UserManager interface.

Implementations:

  • info.magnolia.cms.security.MgnlUserManager manages users stored in Magnolia.
  • info.magnolia.cms.security.ExternalUserManager manages JAAS users.
  • info.magnolia.cms.security.HierarchicalUserManager is a variation of MgnlUserManager that stores users hierarchically using the structure /<path>/<first letter of username>/<first two letters of username> such as /public/j/js/jsmith.
  • info.magnolia.cms.security.DelegatingUserManagerretrieves the user's ACLs.
  • info.magnolia.cms.security.SystemUserManager manages system users such as anonymous and superuser .
disableCache

optional , default is false

Allows to disable caching if set to true .

realmName

required

Realm name corresponding to JAAS login configuration.

User managers and caching

By default the ad and ldap user managers use a basic cache (Cache modules) to avoid repeated calls to LDAP/AD. If Ehcache is used then the default configuration is automatically bootstraped into /modules/cache/config/cacheFactory/caches/ldap-user-manager-cache . Caching may disabled by adding the disableCache property to the manager's node and setting it to true , for example

Node nameValue

 ad

 

 class

info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ADUserManager

 disableCache

true

 realmName

ad

Accessing properties from LDAP

If you need to access more user properties than name, full name and language, extend info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPAuthenticationModule#setEntity to push the desired properties into the Entity object, and the info.magnolia.cms.security.ExternalUserManager/info.magnolia.cms.security.ExternalUser pair to expose it.

Same-name users in different realms

If you are resolving roles or groups, add the allowCrossRealmDuplicateNames property under /server/security/userManagers/admin and set its value to true. This property allows you two create users with the same name in different realms when replicating LDAP/AD users in the repository. By default, Magnolia does not allow the same user name to be repeated.  

Node nameValue

 security

 

 userManagers

 

 system

 

 external

 

 admin

 

 allowCrossRealmDuplicatNames

true

 class

info.magnolia.cms.security.MgnlUserManager

 lockTimePeriod

 0

 maxFailedLoginAttempts

 5

 realmName

 admin

 public

 

See also: Configuring multiple directory servers

Groups and roles

LDAP typically mirrors the organization structure. If your company has a Marketing department then create a  marketing group in the LDAP directory and assign employees to the group. Magnolia also organizes users into groups.

Magnolia also has roles. A role grants a user permission to do something. For example, the editor role grants the user a permission to edit content. Permissions are configured using access control lists. A role can be assigned directly to an user or to a group.

When you authenticate users against an LDAP directory a resolver class finds the groups and roles the user belongs to. This process is called resolving. Since role is the element that grants the user a permission to do something, you must resolve at least roles. You can optionally also resolve groups.

Group resolving

A groupResolverClass configured in ldap.properties finds groups in the LDAP directory and matches them to groups in Magnolia. The group names must match exactly.

Choose a resolver depending on where the groups are stored:

  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.MagnoliaGroupResolver resolves groups from Magnolia.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.OpenLDAPGroupResolver resolves groups from any LDAP directory.
  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.ADGroupResolver resolves groups from Active Directory.

Best practice

When you store groups in LDAP, create one matching group per role in Magnolia. Assign roles to the group in Magnolia in order to grant users the permissions they need. This minimizes the number of groups you need to create in Magnolia.

MagnoliaLDAP

Roles

Groups

Groups

Users

  • editor 
  • workflow-base

editors

editors

  • jsmith
  • eallen
  • cappleton
  • publisher
  • workflow-base

publishers

publishers

  • bleroy
  • dmillet
  • vrobbins

(warning) When creating a group name, make sure that it does not contain an illegal character. See also the ignoreGroupsWithIllegalName property in module configuration.

Role resolving

A roleResolverClass configured in  ldap.properties  finds  roles. Roles must always be stored in Magnolia, they cannot be stored in the LDAP directory. The reason is that the ACLs that grant permissions are attached to roles.

Magnolia provides one role resolver:

  • info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.resolver.MagnoliaRoleResolver resolves roles from the userroles workspace in Magnolia.

Implementing your own resolver

Magnolia does not provide ready-made resolver classes for every possible LDAP product but you can write your own class. Implement the  NameResolver  interface and  the methods to fetch group names from the directory.

Testing and validating LDAP Configuration

The magnolia-ldap-tester artifact is a self-contained executable jar which can be executed with:

java -jar magnolia-ldap-tester-<version>.jar <LoginModule class name> <config.properties> <username> <password>

<LoginModule class name> should be either info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.LDAPAuthenticationModule or info.magnolia.jaas.sp.ldap.ADAuthenticationModule, depending on which one you're using in jaas.config (or login-config.xml with JBoss).

The tool simulates a user login with the given credentials and configuration, outputs the main results, and logs everything else in magnolia-ldap-tester.log.

A successful login attempt looks like this in the log:

INFO  i.m.jaas.sp.ldap.ConnectionFactory - Trying to log in as 
   cn=jsmith,dc=example,dc=com with a password.
DEBUG i.m.jaas.sp.ldap.ConnectionFactory - Login succeeded.
DEBUG i.m.j.s.l.Tester$MockSecuritySupport - Getting user jsmith from realm admin
INFO  info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - Login result: true
INFO  info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - Commit result: true
DEBUG info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - Subject:
DEBUG info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - User: null
INFO  info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - 
   Properties: {title=jsmith, 
   email=john.smith@example.com, 
   name=jsmith, 
   fullName=jsmith, 
   password=secret}
DEBUG info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - 
   State: {groupNames=[], 
   statusValue=1, 
   roleNames=[]}
INFO  info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - Group names: (none)
INFO  info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - Role names: (none)
DEBUG info.magnolia.ldap.tool.LDAPTester - AttributesMap

Do not expect to see any groups or roles assigned. The tester tool does not connect to Magnolia in any way. It connects to the LDAP. It is normal for group assignments handled in Magnolia not to show up.