Magnolia 6.1 reached end of life on March 31, 2021. This branch is no longer supported, see End-of-life policy.
Virtual URI mapping is a way to redirect an incoming request to the actual location of the content. Typically, the virtual address does not match the site hierarchy exactly.
Virtual URI mapping is an area where you can quickly break a site if you are not careful. It is easy to create cyclical mappings where the result of one mapping feeds another mapping. This can have unintended consequences and render AdminCentral unreachable. Create and test mappings in an isolated test environment before deploying them to production. If something goes wrong and you cannot access AdminCentral anymore, use the Groovy Rescue App to delete the problematic mapping.
A given mapping configuration "maps" an incoming URI to a new target URI. It returns a result describing the new URI and the level of match. The following action prefixes are supported for the new URI:
to trigger either a temporary redirect, a permanent redirect or a forward, respectively. See the Action prefixes section below for more detailed explanations.
The URIs can be either absolute or relative within the web application in which case the context path is added automatically. For example:
It is important to keep in mind the placement of the virtualURIFilter in the chain. The filter acts on the current URI at the time of execution. Any selectors removed from the current URI before the filter executes cannot be configured in
fromUri. For example, langauge selectors would be removed from the current URI before the filter executes.
The mappings are delegated to a separate module (
virtual-uri) through the
info.magnolia.virtualuri.VirtualUriFilter class and are stored in their own registry (
VirtualUriRegistry), which allows to reference each mapping also in YAML definition files. All virtual URI mappings can be located via the Definitions app no matter whether they come from JCR or a YAML file:
Alternatively, search the
config space with the JCR Browser app.
Warnings for overflow events are logged in
DirectoryWatcher. Overflow events happen when the maximum number of user watches is reached.
Any existing buffer size is hard-coded and cannot be configured. We recommend to keep the number of files in a single folder below 100 and to use folder hierarchies whenever possible.
Virtual URIs are commonly used in Internet marketing for:
There are also utility reasons for redirecting URLs, related to day-to-day site maintenance:
example.organd redirecting them to your primary site
example.com. You can map multiple domain names to a site in your Magnolia site definition. This can be a major time-saver for a CMS team since there is no need to configure a Web server. Note that you need to register the domains with a registrar first and make sure that DNS entries for the domains point to the server hosting your Magnolia instance.
As an example of mapping, see also Turning a template-based JSON provider into a RESTful API with virtualURIMapping where we define a custom virtual mapping to rewrite a path like
You can create virtual URI mappings in the
virtualUriMappings folder inside your module configuration.
Please note that the YAML-based configuration must be stored under the
virtualUriMappings folder, with the plural
-s at the end and camel-cased
Uri in the middle of the name of the folder. In JCR configuration, the node's name can be either
virtualUriMappings or the older
virtualURIMapping. In either case make sure that the folder is at the top level inside module configuration.
Example: A mapping named
enterprise-edition forwards users from
DefaultVirtualUriMapping class (for description see the Mapping classes section below) maps one URI to another. This ensures that external links that point to
example.com/ee still work when the target page is renamed.
You can configure virtual URI mappings in a YAML definition file inside a light module folder:
class: info.magnolia.virtualuri.mapping.DefaultVirtualUriMapping fromUri: /ee toUri: forward:/enterprise-edition
Class that performs the mapping. See the section Mapping classes below.
Pattern to match in the requested URI.
Concrete URI where the request is mapped to.
required (for the
Specifies the site that should be used for the mapping.
For easier orientation, if you have to configure a lot of mappings, you can store them in folder-like structures rather than in one long flat list of mappings:
Magnolia provides seven ready-made classes that perform virtual URI mapping:
.), it is not taken as a wildcard anymore but the dot in fact is interpreted as dot. If you need a wildcard, use
toUrican contain back references to the regexp matches.
RotatingVirtualUriMapping is an extension of
RegexpVirtualUriMapping that allows rotation between different destination URIs. In order to rotate,
toUri must contain an asterisk character
* that will be replaced by a random integer between
start (default is 1) and
end minus one (default is
3). An additional property
padding specifies the desired width of the string. Zeroes are added to the left of the integer to make all strings equally wide. Default width is
You can also write your own implementation.
The patterns for regular expressions in the regex-based classes are defined in java.util.regex.Pattern.
You can use these action prefixes:
forwardhides the true target URL from the visitor. The URL that the user typed in the browser address bar or the link they clicked remains visible. Forward is performed internally by the servlet. Any browser reload of the resulting page will repeat the original request, with the original URL.
redirectdisplays the true target URL in the address bar. It is a two-step process where the web application instructs the browser to fetch a second URL which differs from the original. A browser reload of the second URL will not repeat the original request but will rather fetch the second URL. Redirect is marginally slower than a forward since it requires two browser requests instead of one. A redirect returns HTTP status code 302 "found" to the client. While OK for human visitors, this method can be suboptimal from search engine optimization (SEO) viewpoint as search engines do not transfer the page rank assigned to the old URL to the new URL.
permanent301 redirect is a search engine friendly option. In this case the HTTP response code is set to 301. Google and Yahoo! specifically endorse this type of redirection and Bing is following the trend. 301 redirect preserves your search engine ranking for the redirected page.
It is also possible to leave the action prefix out. A virtual URI mapping that does not have a prefix does not re-process the request. It just changes the current URI in the AggregationState.
Take requested page name and pass it as a
productId request parameter to a product detail page.
fromUri means "any single character in the range of 0-9 or a-z or A-Z or the character
- literally". The plus character makes this a greedy pattern that matches one or more of the preceding tokens and will match as many characters as possible before satisfying the next token. By enclosing the pattern in parentheses we create a capturing group
([0-9a-zA-Z-]+) which can be referenced in the
These request URIs:
would be mapped to these URIs:
A request URI such as
forward:/banner/image_*.jpg will randomly forward the request to
/banner/image_03.jpg. A use case for this class is rotating images such as banner ads. The mapping displays a random ad on each page visit.
In addition to randomized ad distribution, the class allows you to do basic A/B or multivariate testing. For example, create two images: A and B. Configure the mapping to display them randomly. Track visitor click-through rates to find out which image is more effective.
Forward the visitor to a German language version of the home page when the site is requested with the
.de country domain. Similarly, forward to a French version when the site is requested with the
.fr country domain. The matching pattern is in the
host property. The
toUri value under the parent node works as a fallback option. If no hostname match is found, such as when the site is requested with
acme.com, forward to an English version.
|CE, DX Core|
|CE, DX Core|
|CE, DX Core|